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  • What happens when a function is defined?
  • How can I pass a function to another function?
  • Why would I want to do that?
  • What are higher-order functions?
  • What higher-order functions do JavaScript arrays provide?
  • What is a closure?
  • When and why are closures useful?
  • JavaScript relies heavily on callback functions
    • Instead of me giving you a result, you give me a function that tells me what to do next
  • Many other languages use them occasionally, but JavaScript is often the first place programmers encounter them
  • In order to understand how they work and how to use them, must first understand what happens when functions are defined and called

Functions as Parameters

  • When we write name = "text", JavaScript allocates a block of memory big enough for four characters, copies the characters into that block, and stores a reference to it in the variable name
  • When we write oneMore = (x) => {return x+1}, JavaScript allocates a block of memory big enough to store several instructions, copies the instructions into that block, and stores a reference to it in the variable oneMore
  • Draw a memory diagram to show this

FIXME-14: diagram

  • When we pass a value to a function, what we’re really giving it is a reference to its block of memory
  • So we can pass a function just as easily as we can pass a string or a number
const doTwice = (action) => {

const hello = () => {


FIXME-14: diagram

  • More useful when the function passed in takes parameters
const pipeline = (initial, first, second) => {
  return second(first(initial))

const trim = (text) => { return text.trim() }
const dot = (text) => { return text.replace(/ /g, '.') }

const original = '  this example uses text  '

const trimThenDot = pipeline(original, trim, dot)
console.log(`trim then dot: |${trimThenDot}|`)

const dotThenTrim = pipeline(original, dot, trim)
console.log(`dot then trim: |${dotThenTrim}|`)
trim then dot: |this.example.uses.text|
dot then trim: |..this.example.uses.text..|
  • Make a general pipeline by passing an array of functions
const pipeline = (initial, operations) => {
  let current = initial
  for (let op of operations) {
    current = op(current)
  return current

const trim = (text) => { return text.trim() }
const dot = (text) => { return text.replace(/ /g, '.') }
const double = (text) => { return text + text }

const original = ' some text '
const final = pipeline(original, [double, trim, dot])
console.log(`|${original}| -> |${final}|`)
| some text | -> |some.text..some.text|
  • Define the function in place without bothering to give it a name
    • Just as we might pass x+1 to a function directly rather than assigning that value to a variable and then passing in the variable
  • Often called an anonymous function
const transform = (values, operation) => {
  let result = []
  for (let v of values) {
  return result

const data = ['one', 'two', 'three']

const upper = transform(data, (x) => { return x.toUpperCase() })
console.log(`upper: ${upper}`)

const first = transform(data, (x) => { return x[0] })
console.log(`first: ${first}`)
first: o,t,t
  • When JavaScript programmers use the term “callback function”, they usually mean a function defined and used this way

Functional Programming

  • Functional programming is a style of programming that:
    • Relies heavily on higher-order functions (i.e., functions that take functions as parameters)
    • Doesn’t modify data structures in place, but instead creates new ones from old
  • JavaScript arrays provide several methods to support functional programming

  • Array.some returns true if any element in an array passes a test
  • Array.every returns true if all elements in an array pass a test
const data = ['this', 'is', 'a', 'test']
console.log('some longer than 3:', data.some((x) => { return x.length > 3 }))
console.log('all greater than 3:', data.every((x) => { return x.length > 3 }))
some longer than 3: true
all greater than 3: false
  • Array.filter creates a new array containing only values that pass a test
const data = ['this', 'is', 'a', 'test']
console.log('those greater than 3:', data.filter((x) => { return x.length > 3 }))
those greater than 3: [ 'this', 'test' ]
  • So do all of the element with more than 3 characters start with a ‘t’?
const data = ['this', 'is', 'a', 'test']
console.log('all longer than 3 start with t',
            .filter((x) => { return x.length > 3 })
            .every((x) => { return x[0] === 't' }))
all longer than 3 start with t true
  • creates a new array by calling a function for each element of an existing array
const data = ['this', 'is', 'a', 'test']
console.log('shortened', => { return x.slice(0, 2) }))
shortened [ 'th', 'is', 'a', 'te' ]
  • Array.reduce reduces an array to a single value using a given function and a starting value
    • Need the starting value because the combiner function must take two values (next in sequence and running total)
const data = ['this', 'is', 'a', 'test']

const concatFirst = (accumulator, nextValue) => {
  return accumulator + nextValue[0]
const acronym = data.reduce(concatFirst, '')
console.log(`acronym of ${data} is ${acronym}`)

console.log('in one step', data.reduce((accum, next) => {
  return accum + next[0]
}, ''))
acronym of this,is,a,test is tiat
in one step tiat


  • Last tool we need to introduce is an extremely useful side-effect of the way memory is handled
    • Explain by example
  • Have already created a function pipeline that combines any set of functions we want
const pipeline = (initial, operations) => {
  let current = initial
  for (let op of operations) {
    current = op(current)
  return current
  • But this only works if each function in operations has a single parameter
  • If we want to be able to add 1, add 2, and so on, we have to write separate functions
  • Better choice: write a function that creates the function we want
const adder = (increment) => {
  const f = (value) => {
    return value + increment
  return f

const add1 = adder(1)
const add2 = adder(2)
console.log(`add1(100) is ${add1(100)} and add2(100) is ${add2(100)}`)
add1(100) is 101 and add2(100) is 102
  • Best way to understand what’s going on is to draw a step-by-step memory diagram
  • Step 1: call adder(1)

FIXME-14: diagram

  • Step 2: adder creates a new function that includes a reference to that 1

FIXME-14: diagram

  • Step 3: adder returns that function, which is assigned to add1

FIXME-14: diagram

  • Step 4: same sequence to create another function with an embedded reference to 2

FIXME-14: diagram

  • Step 5: call to add1 inside console.log
    • Call to add2 works the same way

FIXME-14: diagram

  • The combination of a function and some embedded variable bindings is called a closure
    • Works because a function “capture” the values of the variables that are in scope when it is defined but it doesn’t define itself
const pipeline = before...

const adder = before...

const result = pipeline(100, [adder(1), adder(2)])
console.log(`adding 1 and 2 to 100 -> ${result}`)
adding 1 and 2 to 100 -> 103
  • Again, adder(1) and adder(2) do not add anything to anything
    • They define new (unnamed) functions that will add 1 and 2 when called
  • Often go one step further and define the function inline
const pipeline = (initial, operations) => {
  let current = initial
  for (let op of operations) {
    current = op(current)
  return current

const result = pipeline(100, [(x) => x + 1, (x) => x + 2])
console.log(`adding 1 and 2 to 100 -> ${result}`)
adding 1 and 2 to 100 -> 103


Side Effects With forEach

JavaScript arrays have a method called forEach, which calls a callback function once for each element of the array. Unlike map, forEach does not save the values returned by these calls or return an array of results. The full syntax is:

someArray.forEach((value, location, container) => {
  // 'value' is the value in 'someArray'
  // 'location' is the index of that value
  // 'container' is the containing array (in this case, 'someArray')

If you only need the value, you can provide a callback that only takes one parameter; if you only need the value and its location, you can provide a callback that takes two. Use this to write a function doubleInPlace that doubles all the values in an array in place:

const vals = [1, 2, 3]
console.log(`vals after change: ${vals}`)
vals after change: 2,4,6

Annotating Data

Given an array of objects representing observations of wild animals:

data = [
  {'date': '1977-7-16', 'sex': 'M', 'species': 'NL'},
  {'date': '1977-7-16', 'sex': 'M', 'species': 'NL'},
  {'date': '1977-7-16', 'sex': 'F', 'species': 'DM'},
  {'date': '1977-7-16', 'sex': 'M', 'species': 'DM'},
  {'date': '1977-7-16', 'sex': 'M', 'species': 'DM'},
  {'date': '1977-7-16', 'sex': 'M', 'species': 'PF'},
  {'date': '1977-7-16', 'sex': 'F', 'species': 'PE'},
  {'date': '1977-7-16', 'sex': 'M', 'species': 'DM'}

write a function that returns a new array of objects like this:

newData = [
  {'seq': 3, 'year': '1977', 'sex': 'F', 'species': 'DM'},
  {'seq': 7, 'year': '1977', 'sex': 'F', 'species': 'PE'}

without using any loops. The changes are:

  • The date field is replaced with just the `year.
  • Only observations of female animals are retained.
  • The retained records are given sequence numbers to relate them back to the original data. (These sequence numbers are 1-based rather than 0-based.)

You may want to use Array.reduce to generate the sequence numbers. Use the web to find a description of it, and work with a partner to ensure that you understand how it works.

Key Points

  • JavaScript stores the instructions making up a function in memory like any other object.
  • Function objects can be assigned to variables, put in lists, passed as arguments to other functions, etc.
  • Functions can be defined in place without ever being given a name.
  • A callback function is one that is passed in to another function for it to execute at a particular moment.
  • Functional programming uses higher-order functions on immutable data.
  • Array.some is true if any element in an array passes a test, while Array.every is true if they all do.
  • Array.filter selects elements of an array that pass a test.
  • creates a new array by transforming values in an existing one.
  • Array.reduce reduces an array to a single value.
  • A closure is a set of variables captured during the definition of a function.